Multi-Step Tool Use

Multi-Step Tool Use

Tool use allows developers to connect Cohere's models to external tools like search engines, APIs, functions, databases, etc.

Multi-step tool use is an extension of this basic idea, and allows the model to call more than one tool in a sequence of steps, using the results from one tool call in a subsequent step. This process allows the language model to reason, perform dynamic actions, and quickly adapt on the basis of information coming from external sources.

The recommended way to achieve multi-step tool use with Cohere is by leveraging the Langchain framework in Python.

Install Dependencies

! pip install --quiet langchain langchain_cohere langchain_experimental
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[?25h
import os
os.environ['COHERE_API_KEY'] = <your-api-key>

Define tools

Your agent will be equipped with the following tools. The model can pick between

  • doing a search on the web
  • and/or retrieving data from a vector store
  • and/or using a python interpreter
  • and/or directly answering [ this tool comes out of the box! ]

Plus the model can self-reflect.

Web search

You can easily equip your agent with web search!

from langchain_community.tools.tavily_search import TavilySearchResults

os.environ["TAVILY_API_KEY"] = <your-api-key> # you can create an API key for free on Tavily's website

internet_search = TavilySearchResults()
internet_search.name = "internet_search"
internet_search.description = "Returns a list of relevant document snippets for a textual query retrieved from the internet."


from langchain_core.pydantic_v1 import BaseModel, Field
class TavilySearchInput(BaseModel):
    query: str = Field(description="Query to search the internet with")
internet_search.args_schema = TavilySearchInput

Vector store

You can easily equip your agent with a vector store!

!pip --quiet install faiss-cpu tiktoken
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[?25h
from langchain.text_splitter import RecursiveCharacterTextSplitter
from langchain_community.document_loaders import WebBaseLoader
from langchain_community.vectorstores import FAISS
from langchain_cohere import CohereEmbeddings

embd = CohereEmbeddings()

urls = [
    "https://paulgraham.com/best.html",
]

docs = [WebBaseLoader(url).load() for url in urls]
docs_list = [item for sublist in docs for item in sublist]

text_splitter = RecursiveCharacterTextSplitter.from_tiktoken_encoder(
    chunk_size=512, chunk_overlap=0
)
doc_splits = text_splitter.split_documents(docs_list)

vectorstore = FAISS.from_documents(
    documents=doc_splits,
    embedding=embd,
)

vectorstore_retriever = vectorstore.as_retriever()

from langchain.tools.retriever import create_retriever_tool

vectorstore_search = create_retriever_tool(
    retriever=vectorstore_retriever,
    name="vectorstore_search",
    description="Retrieve relevant info from a vectorstore that contains information from Paul Graham about how to write good essays."
)

Python interpreter tool

You can easily equip your agent with a python interpreter!

from langchain.agents import Tool
from langchain_experimental.utilities import PythonREPL

python_repl = PythonREPL()
python_tool = Tool(
    name="python_repl",
    description="Executes python code and returns the result. The code runs in a static sandbox without interactive mode, so print output or save output to a file.",
    func=python_repl.run,
)
python_tool.name = "python_interpreter"

class ToolInput(BaseModel):
    code: str = Field(description="Python code to execute.")
python_tool.args_schema = ToolInput

Transform any Python function in a Tool

You can easily equip your agent with any Python function!

from langchain_core.tools import tool
import random

@tool
def random_operation_tool(a: int, b: int):
  """Calculates a random operation between the inputs."""
  coin_toss = random.uniform(0, 1)
  if coin_toss > 0.5:
    return {'output': a*b}
  else:
    return {'output': a+b}

random_operation_tool.name = "random_operation" # use python case
random_operation_tool.description = "Calculates a random operation between the inputs."

from langchain_core.pydantic_v1 import BaseModel, Field
class random_operation_inputs(BaseModel):
    a: int = Field(description="First input")
    b: int = Field(description="Second input")
random_operation_tool.args_schema = random_operation_inputs

Create ReAct Agent

The model can smartly pick the right tool(s) for the user query, call them in any sequence, analyze the results and self-reflect.
Once the model considers it has enough information to answer the user question, it generates the final answer.

from langchain.agents import AgentExecutor
from langchain_cohere.react_multi_hop.agent import create_cohere_react_agent
from langchain_core.prompts import ChatPromptTemplate
from langchain_cohere.chat_models import ChatCohere

llm = ChatCohere(model="command-r-plus", temperature=0.3)

preamble = """
You are an expert who answers the user's question with the most relevant datasource. You are equipped with an internet search tool and a special vectorstore of information about how to write good essays.
You also have a 'random_operation_tool' tool, you must use it to compute the random operation between two numbers.
"""


prompt = ChatPromptTemplate.from_template("{input}")

agent = create_cohere_react_agent(
    llm=llm,
    tools=[internet_search, vectorstore_search, python_tool, random_operation_tool],
    prompt=prompt,
)

agent_executor = AgentExecutor(agent=agent, tools=[internet_search, vectorstore_search, python_tool, random_operation_tool], verbose=True)

Ask a standalone question to the ReAct agent

A question that requires using a predefined tool from Langchain

response = agent_executor.invoke({
    "input": "I want to write an essay about the Roman Empire. Any tips for writing an essay? Any fun facts?",
    "preamble": preamble,
})

response['output']

> Entering new AgentExecutor chain...

I will search for tips on writing an essay and fun facts about the Roman Empire.
{'tool_name': 'vectorstore_search', 'parameters': {'query': 'tips for writing an essay'}}
be? I should have asked how do you write essays well? Though
these seem only phrasing apart, their answers diverge. The answer
to the first question, as we've seen, isn't really about essay
writing. The second question forces it to be.Writing essays, at its best, is a way of discovering ideas. How do
you do that well? How do you discover by writing?An essay should ordinarily start with what I'm going to call a
question, though I mean this in a very general sense: it doesn't
have to be a question grammatically, just something that acts like
one in the sense that it spurs some response.How do you get this initial question? It probably won't work to
choose some important-sounding topic at random and go at it.
Professional traders won't even trade unless they have what they
call an edge — a convincing story about why in some class of
trades they'll win more than they lose. Similarly, you shouldn't
attack a topic unless you have a way in — some new insight about
it or way of approaching it.You don't need to have a complete thesis; you just need some kind
of gap you can explore. In fact, merely having questions about
something other people take for granted can be edge enough.If you come across a question that's sufficiently puzzling, it could
be worth exploring even if it doesn't seem very momentous. Many an
important discovery has been made by pulling on a thread that seemed
insignificant at first. How can they all be finches? 
[2]Once you've got a question, then what? You start thinking out loud
about it. Not literally out loud, but you commit to a specific
string of words in response, as you would if you were talking. This
initial response is usually mistaken or incomplete. Writing converts
your ideas from vague to bad. But that's a step forward, because
once you can see the brokenness, you can fix it.Perhaps beginning writers are alarmed at the thought of starting
with something mistaken or incomplete, but you shouldn't be, because
this is why essay writing works. Forcing yourself to commit to some
specific string of words gives you a starting point, and if it's
wrong, you'll see that when you reread it. At least half of essay
writing is rereading what you've written and asking is this correct

didn't have edge with any of them. To start writing an essay, you
need a topic plus some initial insight about it, and you can't
generate those systematically. If only. 
[9]You can probably cause yourself to have more of them, though. The
quality of the ideas that come out of your head depends on what goes
in, and you can improve that in two dimensions, breadth and depth.You can't learn everything, so getting breadth implies learning
about topics that are very different from one another. When I tell
people about my book-buying trips to Hay and they ask what I buy
books about, I usually feel a bit sheepish answering, because the
topics seem like a laundry list of unrelated subjects. But perhaps
that's actually optimal in this business.You can also get ideas by talking to people, by doing and building
things, and by going places and seeing things. I don't think it's
important to talk to new people so much as the sort of people who
make you have new ideas. I get more new ideas after talking for an
afternoon with Robert Morris than from talking to 20 new smart
people. I know because that's what a block of office hours at Y
Combinator consists of.While breadth comes from reading and talking and seeing, depth comes
from doing. The way to really learn about some domain is to have
to solve problems in it. Though this could take the form of writing,
I suspect that to be a good essayist you also have to do, or have
done, some other kind of work. That may not be true for most other
fields, but essay writing is different. You could spend half your
time working on something else and be net ahead, so long as it was
hard.I'm not proposing that as a recipe so much as an encouragement to
those already doing it. If you've spent all your life so far working
on other things, you're already halfway there. Though of course to
be good at writing you have to like it, and if you like writing
you'd probably have spent at least some time doing it.Everything I've said about initial questions applies also to the
questions you encounter in writing the essay. They're the same
thing; every subtree of an essay is usually a shorter essay, just
as every subtree of a Calder mobile is a smaller mobile. So any

You don't have to get an answer right the first time, but there's
no excuse for not getting it right eventually, because you can keep
rewriting till you do. And this is not just a theoretical possibility.
It's a pretty accurate description of the way I work. I'm rewriting
as we speak.But although I wish I could say that writing great essays depends mostly
on effort, in the limit case it's inspiration that makes the
difference. In the limit case, the questions are the harder thing
to get. That pool has no bottom.How to get more questions? That is the most important question of
all.Notes[1]
There might be some resistance to this conclusion on the
grounds that some of these discoveries could only be understood by
a small number of readers. But you get into all sorts of difficulties
if you want to disqualify essays on this account. How do you decide
where the cutoff should be? If a virus kills off everyone except a 
handful of people sequestered at Los Alamos,
could an essay that had been disqualified now be eligible? Etc.Darwin's 1844 essay was derived from an earlier version written in 1839.
Extracts from it were published in 1858.[2]
When you find yourself very curious about an apparently minor
question, that's an exciting sign. Evolution has designed you to
pay attention to things that matter. So when you're very curious
about something random, that could mean you've unconsciously noticed
it's less random than it seems.[3]
Corollary: If you're not intellectually honest, your writing
won't just be biased, but also boring, because you'll miss all the
ideas you'd have discovered if you pushed for the truth.[4]
Sometimes this process begins before you start writing.
Sometimes you've already figured out the first few things you want
to say. Schoolchildren are often taught they should decide everything
they want to say, and write this down as an outline before they
start writing the essay itself. Maybe that's a good way to get them
started — or not, I don't know — but it's antithetical to the
spirit of essay writing. The more detailed your outline, the less
your ideas can benefit from the sort of discovery that essays are for.[5]
The problem with this type of "greedy" algorithm is that you

technique that gets you good initial questions also gets you good
whole essays.At some point the cycle of question and response reaches what feels
like a natural end. Which is a little suspicious; shouldn't every
answer suggest more questions? I think what happens is that you
start to feel sated. Once you've covered enough interesting ground,
you start to lose your appetite for new questions. Which is just
as well, because the reader is probably feeling sated too. And it's
not lazy to stop asking questions, because you could instead be
asking the initial question of a new essay.That's the ultimate source of drag on the connectedness of ideas:
the discoveries you make along the way. If you discover enough
starting from question A, you'll never make it to question B. Though
if you keep writing essays you'll gradually fix this problem by
burning off such discoveries. So bizarrely enough, writing lots of
essays makes it as if the space of ideas were more highly connected.When a subtree comes to an end, you can do one of two things. You
can either stop, or pull the Cubist trick of laying separate subtrees
end to end by returning to a question you skipped earlier. Usually
it requires some sleight of hand to make the essay flow continuously
at this point, but not this time. This time I actually need an
example of the phenomenon. For example, we discovered earlier that
the best possible essay wouldn't usually be timeless in the way the
best painting would. This seems surprising enough to be
worth investigating further.There are two senses in which an essay can be timeless: to be about
a matter of permanent importance, and always to have the same effect
on readers. With art these two senses blend together. Art that
looked beautiful to the ancient Greeks still looks beautiful to us.
But with essays the two senses diverge, because essays
teach, and you can't teach people something they already know.
Natural selection is certainly a matter of permanent importance,
but an essay explaining it couldn't have the same effect on us that
it would have had on Darwin's contemporaries, precisely because his
ideas were so successful that everyone already knows about them.
[10]I imagined when I started writing this that the best possible essay
would be timeless in the stricter, evergreen sense: that it would
{'tool_name': 'internet_search', 'parameters': {'query': 'fun facts about the roman empire'}}
[{'url': 'https://www.natgeokids.com/uk/discover/history/romans/10-facts-about-the-ancient-romans/', 'content': 'i love this website\nBIG BOBBY\nbooby\nI love shell my bae;)\ni like bobby fishes ;0\nI like turtles\nOmg soy cool\ngreeeeeeeeeeeeaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaatttttttttttttttttttttttt\nbest fact ever\nthis artical is cool\nHANDY\nrubbish did not help what so ever\nha\nRocking\nTHIS IS THE BEST\nproper rad in it cool\nthis is cool\nawesomeness\nawsome\nawsome\nthank you captain\nit is a lot of help\ni like this\nwebsite it helps me on my projects and isabel likes munier\nmark uses this for research\nlot of help\nthis is awsome\nTHE BEST BOOBOO\nCool webpage helped me get 4 housepoints\n This helped me A LOT on a school project\ncool wow awesomoe\nCOOL WEBSITE LOL\nthis helped me with a school project :)\nthat was awesome\ncool\nthat helped me out for my research test\nReally its very cool really COOL\nLIKE COOL best website so far its nice\nI love it\nnice facts\nIt help with my history\n i mean u made animaljam a awesome nice safe place for kids and this site to have kids a safe website to get facts for reports and stuff\nLots of Love ,\nRose\npretty good website if u ask me\nbut definently not gonna use it on a daily basis\nIll try it again another time\ngood\nCool webcite\nterrible\nquite impressive\nAwesome website it real helps\nits good\nthis is a great website! You really a lot with my project!:)\nthis has helleped\nme get\nmy progect\ndone\nthank you\nsoooooooooooooooooo\nmuchchchchchch\nthis helleped me\nsooooooooo much with my progect thank you\nvery good website\nthank us very much your nice one today!!\n'}, {'url': 'https://ohfact.com/roman-empire-facts/', 'content': 'Learn about the ancient Roman Civilization, its history, culture, army, architecture, food and more from this list of 27 facts. Discover how the Romans started, conquered, lived, died and influenced the world with their legends, myths and facts.'}, {'url': 'https://factnight.com/fun-facts-about-the-roman-empire/', 'content': 'The Roman Empire was one of the most influential and significant civilizations in world history. At its peak, the empire stretched from North Africa to Britain, reigning over 60 million people. From its legendary beginnings and remarkable achievements to its eventual decline and fall, the Roman Empire is a fascinating topic full of little-known facts and intriguing trivia.'}, {'url': 'https://www.historyhit.com/facts-about-ancient-rome-and-the-romans/', 'content': 'The Enduring Legacy of C.S. Lewis\nMargaret J. Winkler: A Forgotten Pioneer in Disney’s Success\n10 Facts About Harper Lee\nAntarctica Expedition Cruise\nUncover Pompeii\nSophie Hay and Tristan Hughes\nRediscovering Richard III with Matt Lewis\nOrder the History Hit Miscellany\nHistory Hit Holidays\nGift Subscriptions\n100 Facts About Ancient Rome and the Romans\nRome wasn’t built in a day, as the cliché reminds us. The Crossing of the Rhine in 405/6 AD brought around 100,000 barbarians into the Empire\nBarbarian factions, tribes and war leaders were now a factor in the power struggles at the top of Roman politics and one of the once-strong boundaries of the Empire had proved to be permeable.\n Related Articles\n10 Facts About Saint Andrew\nThe Rise of Pompey the Great, the ‘Roman Alexander’\nWatch and Listen\nCleopatra\nSex in Ancient Rome\nRelated Locations\nBaelo Claudia\nMausoleum of Cecilia Metella\nColin Ricketts\n30 July 2021\n By the fourth century BC, the story was accepted by Romans who were proud of their warrior founder\nThe story was included in the first history of the city, by the Greek writer Diocles of Peparethus, and the twins and their wolf step-mother were depicted on Rome’s first coins.\n The History Hit Miscellany of Facts, Figures and Fascinating Finds\nA History of England: Part One\nDragons: Myth & Reality\nA Tudor Wonder - Hardwick Hall\nThe Battle of Shrewsbury\nEurope’s 1848 Revolutions\nThe Boston Tea Party\nHow Did 3 People Seemingly Escape From Alcatraz?\n'}, {'url': 'https://www.countryfaq.com/facts-about-the-roman-empire/', 'content': 'Facts about the Roman Empire. Explore some of the interesting, fun, cool facts bout the Roman Empire: 1. The Magnificent Roman Empire. The Roman Empire, a colossal entity of unparalleled grandeur, occupies an indomitable position within the annals of human history, a name that resonates resoundingly across the eons.'}]Relevant Documents: 0,3,4,5
Cited Documents: 0,3,4,5
Answer: Here are some tips for writing an essay:
- Start with a question that spurs some response.
- Don't choose a topic at random, make sure you have a way in, a new insight or approach.
- You don't need a complete thesis, just a gap to explore.
- You can get ideas by talking to people, reading, doing and building things, and going places and seeing things.
- You can improve the quality of your ideas by increasing the breadth and depth of what goes in.
- You can get breadth by reading and talking about a wide range of topics.
- You can get depth by doing and having to solve problems.
- You can also get ideas by talking to people who make you have new ideas.

Here are some fun facts about the Roman Empire:
- At its peak, the empire stretched from North Africa to Britain, reigning over 60 million people.
- The story of Rome's warrior founder and the twins and their wolf step-mother was depicted on Rome's first coins.
- The Crossing of the Rhine in 405/6 AD brought around 100,000 barbarians into the Empire.
Grounded answer: Here are some tips for writing an essay:
- <co: 0>Start with a question that spurs some response</co: 0>.
- <co: 0>Don't choose a topic at random, make sure you have a way in, a new insight or approach</co: 0>.
- <co: 0>You don't need a complete thesis, just a gap to explore</co: 0>.
- <co: 0>You can get ideas by talking to people, reading, doing and building things, and going places and seeing things</co: 0>.
- <co: 0>You can improve the quality of your ideas by increasing the breadth and depth of what goes in</co: 0>.
- <co: 0>You can get breadth by reading and talking about a wide range of topics</co: 0>.
- <co: 0>You can get depth by doing and having to solve problems</co: 0>.
- <co: 0>You can also get ideas by talking to people who make you have new ideas</co: 0>.

Here are some fun facts about the Roman Empire:
- <co: 3>At its peak, the empire stretched from North Africa to Britain, reigning over 60 million people</co: 3>.
- <co: 4>The story of Rome's warrior founder and the twins and their wolf step-mother was depicted on Rome's first coins</co: 4>.
- <co: 4>The Crossing of the Rhine in 405/6 AD brought around 100,000 barbarians into the Empire</co: 4>.

> Finished chain.





"Here are some tips for writing an essay:\n- Start with a question that spurs some response.\n- Don't choose a topic at random, make sure you have a way in, a new insight or approach.\n- You don't need a complete thesis, just a gap to explore.\n- You can get ideas by talking to people, reading, doing and building things, and going places and seeing things.\n- You can improve the quality of your ideas by increasing the breadth and depth of what goes in.\n- You can get breadth by reading and talking about a wide range of topics.\n- You can get depth by doing and having to solve problems.\n- You can also get ideas by talking to people who make you have new ideas.\n\nHere are some fun facts about the Roman Empire:\n- At its peak, the empire stretched from North Africa to Britain, reigning over 60 million people.\n- The story of Rome's warrior founder and the twins and their wolf step-mother was depicted on Rome's first coins.\n- The Crossing of the Rhine in 405/6 AD brought around 100,000 barbarians into the Empire."

A question that requires the large language model to use a custom tool.

response = agent_executor.invoke({
    "input": "Calculate the result of the random operation of 10 and 20. Then find a few fun facts about that number, as well as its prime factors.",
    "preamble": preamble,
})

response['output']

> Entering new AgentExecutor chain...

First, I will calculate the result of the random operation between 10 and 20. Then, I will search for fun facts about that number and its prime factors.
{'tool_name': 'random_operation_tool', 'parameters': {'a': 10, 'b': 20}}
random_operation_tool is not a valid tool, try one of [internet_search, vectorstore_search, python_interpreter, random_operation].
I received an error message when trying to use the random_operation_tool. I will now try using the python_interpreter tool to calculate the random operation between 10 and 20.
{'tool_name': 'python_interpreter', 'parameters': {'code': "import random\n\n# Define the two numbers\na = 10\nb = 20\n\n# Calculate the random operation\nresult = random.choice(['+', '-', '*', '/'])\n\n# Perform the operation\nif result == '+':\n    answer = a + b\nelif result == '-':\n    answer = a - b\nelif result == '*':\n    answer = a * b\nelif result == '/':\n    answer = a / b\n\nprint(f'The result of the random operation is {answer:.0f}')"}}
The result of the random operation is 200

The result of the random operation is 200. Now I will search for fun facts about the number 200 and its prime factors.
{'tool_name': 'internet_search', 'parameters': {'query': 'fun facts about the number 200'}}
[{'url': 'https://www.express.co.uk/life-style/top10facts/690340/Top-10-facts-number-200', 'content': "Top 10 facts about the number 200 TODAY is the 200th day of 2016, so to celebrate let's have some facts about the number 200. By WILLIAM HARTSTON. 00:01, Mon, Jul 18, 2016."}, {'url': 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/200_(number)', 'content': "The number appears in the Padovan sequence, preceded by 86, 114, 151 (it is the sum of the first two of these). The sum of Euler's totient function φ(x) over the first twenty-five integers is 200. 200 is the smallest base 10 unprimeable number - it cannot be turned into a prime number by changing just one of its digits to any other digit."}, {'url': 'https://www.archimedes-lab.org/numbers/Num70_200.html', 'content': "With 189 pages filled with an incredible variety of fun facts on numbers (and their peculiar properties), both mathematical and cultural, as well as tantalizing problems and anecdotes, there is much to learn for everyone. ... The number 200, according to Bullinger's study of biblical literature, signifies 'insufficiency'. The word 200 (ducenti) ..."}, {'url': 'https://owlcation.com/misc/Over-200-Odd-Facts-Did-You-Know-Them', 'content': "Over 200 odd facts about science, sports, history and more that you and your friends probably don't already know! ... Strange and Interesting Facts. ... Average number of people airborne over the U.S. at any given hour: 61,000. Portion of land in the U.S. owned by the government: 1/3. Ninety percent of New York City cabbies are recently arrived ..."}, {'url': 'https://numbermatics.com/n/200/', 'content': 'Mathematical info, prime factorization, fun facts and numerical data for STEM, education and fun. Your guide to the number 200, an even composite number composed of two distinct primes. Mathematical info, prime factorization, fun facts and numerical data for STEM, education and fun. ... Number 200 - Facts about the integer. Retrieved 2 April ...'}]
{'tool_name': 'internet_search', 'parameters': {'query': 'prime factors of 200'}}
[{'url': 'https://www.cuemath.com/numbers/factors-of-200/', 'content': 'Therefore, the factors of 200 are 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 20, 25, 40, 50, 100, and 200. Which means the number 200 is an even composite number.'}, {'url': 'https://byjus.com/maths/factors-of-200/', 'content': "The factors of 200 are 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 20, 25, 40, 50, 100 and 200. Visit BYJU'S to learn the pair factors and the prime factors of 200 with complete\xa0..."}, {'url': 'https://byjus.com/us/math/factors-of-200/', 'content': 'The factors of 200 are 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 20, 25, 40, 50, 100 and 200 because all these numbers divide the number 200 evenly.'}, {'url': 'https://homework.study.com/explanation/what-is-the-prime-factorization-of-200-using-exponents.html', 'content': 'The prime factorization of 200 using exponents is 2 3 ∗ 5 2 . First, we need to find the prime factorization of 200. 200 = 2 ∗ 100. 200 = 2 ∗ 2 ∗ 50.'}]Relevant Documents: 1,3,4,6,7,8,9,10
Cited Documents: 1,3,4,6,7,8,9,10
Answer: The result of the random operation is **200**. Here are some fun facts about the number 200:
- It is the smallest base 10 unprimeable number, meaning it cannot be turned into a prime number by changing just one of its digits to any other digit.
- According to Bullinger's study of biblical literature, the number 200 signifies 'insufficiency'.
- The number 200 is an even composite number composed of two distinct primes.

The prime factors of 200 are 2 and 5.
Grounded answer: The result of the random operation is *<co: 1>*200</co: 1>**. Here are some fun facts about the number 200:
- It is the <co: 3>smallest base 10 unprimeable number</co: 3>, meaning it <co: 3>cannot be turned into a prime number by changing just one of its digits to any other digit</co: 3>.
- According to <co: 4>Bullinger's study of biblical literature</co: 4>, the number 200 signifies <co: 4>'insufficiency</co: 4>'.
- The number 200 is an <co: 6,7>even</co: 6,7> <co: 6,7,9>composite number</co: 6,7,9> composed of <co: 6>two distinct primes</co: 6>.

The prime factors of 200 are <co: 10>2 and 5</co: 10>.

> Finished chain.





"The result of the random operation is **200**. Here are some fun facts about the number 200:\n- It is the smallest base 10 unprimeable number, meaning it cannot be turned into a prime number by changing just one of its digits to any other digit.\n- According to Bullinger's study of biblical literature, the number 200 signifies 'insufficiency'.\n- The number 200 is an even composite number composed of two distinct primes.\n\nThe prime factors of 200 are 2 and 5."

A question that requires the large language model to directly answer.

response = agent_executor.invoke({
    "input": "Hey how are you?",
    "preamble": preamble,
})

response['output']

> Entering new AgentExecutor chain...

I will respond to the user's greeting.
{'tool_name': 'directly_answer', 'parameters': {}}
directly_answer is not a valid tool, try one of [internet_search, vectorstore_search, python_interpreter, random_operation].Relevant Documents: None
Cited Documents: None
Answer: I'm an AI chatbot, so I don't have feelings as such, but I'm here to help you with your queries. How can I help?
Grounded answer: I'm an AI chatbot, so I don't have feelings as such, but I'm here to help you with your queries. How can I help?

> Finished chain.





"I'm an AI chatbot, so I don't have feelings as such, but I'm here to help you with your queries. How can I help?"

Ask a more complex question to the ReAct agent

A question that requires using multipe tools, in sequence

response = agent_executor.invoke({
    "input": "In what year was the company that was founded as Sound of Music went public? What was its stock price in 2000 and 2010.",
    "preamble": preamble,
})

response['output']
> Entering new AgentExecutor chain...

I will search for the company that was founded as Sound of Music. Then, I will search for the year it went public. Finally, I will search for its stock price in 2000 and 2010.
{'tool_name': 'internet_search', 'parameters': {'query': 'company founded as Sound of Music'}}
[{'url': 'https://www.mprnews.org/story/2012/05/15/best-buy-richard-schulze-legacy', 'content': 'Amazon is taking a piece of everyone\'s business,"\nSome analysts have questioned the extent to which Schulze\'s strong hand over the company has held it back in the face of digital competition. "\nSchulze hit on the "Best Buy" strategy when a twister ripped open a store and the company held a huge sale with low prices and lots of promotion. And Richard Schulz was able to outthink and outmaneuver the competition to put up Best Buy as the definitive place in the brick-and-mortar world to buy electronic equipment," Spector said.\n Best Buy\'s Richard Schulze: Stereo seller to retail giant\nShare\nIn 1966, Best Buy was a stereo specialty retailer called Sound of Music, founded by Richard Schulze in St. Paul.\n Former CEO Anderson said it is possible that Schulze\'s goals for the company were out of touch with the digital age, and that Schulze may have stuck around too long.\n'}, {'url': 'https://corporate.bestbuy.com/tag/sound-of-music/', 'content': 'As we celebrate Best Buy’s 50th anniversary, we sat down with founder and Chairman Emeritus Dick Schulze and current Chairman and CEO Hubert Joly to talk about how we got to where we are today and get a glimpse into where we’re going next.\n Sound of Music\n22 Aug: Best Buy at 50: A Q&A with Founder Dick Schulze and CEO Hubert Joly\nTechnology has changed a lot over the past half century, and so has Best Buy.\n 14 Jun: 35 Years Ago Today, A Tornado Transformed Best Buy\nOn the afternoon of June 14, 1981, a tornado slammed into the Minneapolis suburbs, mere miles from where the Best Buy corporate headquarters now stands.\n Little did he know that it would become Best Buy, a nearly $40 billion company that now sells everything from TVs and laptops to drones and virtual-reality headsets.\n It was the most significant tornado to hit the Minneapolis-St. Paul area in 20 years — and its wake would change the path of our company.\n'}, {'url': 'https://historydraft.com/story/best-buy/timeline/841', 'content': "Best Buy announced the shutdown of the Future Shop chain in Canada\nOn March 28, 2015, Best Buy announced the shutdown of the Future Shop chain in Canada; 65 of its 131 former locations were converted into Best Buy locations, while the rest (primarily those in close proximity to an existing Best Buy) were closed permanently.\n Best Buy Company, Inc\nIn 1983, with seven stores and $10 million in annual sales, Sound of Music was renamed Best Buy Company, Inc.\nBest Buy debuted on the New York Stock Exchange\nBest Buy was taken public in 1985, and two years later it debuted on the New York Stock Exchange.\n The company closed all of its Best Buy-branded stores in China\nThe company closed all of its Best Buy-branded stores in China by February 2011, when it merged Best Buy China's operations with Jiangsu Five Star, which had become a wholly-owned subsidiary of Best Buy in 2009.\n Best Buy announced that it would start selling musical instruments and related gear in over 80 of its retail stores\nIn July 2008, Best Buy announced that it would start selling musical instruments and related gear in over 80 of its retail stores, making the company the second-largest musical-instrument distributor in the US.\n Best Buy hired Virtucom Group to revamp Best Buy's website and handle all of the company's online content\nIn January 2004, Best Buy hired Virtucom Group to revamp Best Buy's website and handle all of the company's online content.\n"}, {'url': 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Best_Buy', 'content': 'Under the Geek Squad brand, Best Buy offers computer repair, warranty service, and accidental service plans.[2] Best Buy provides an online community forum for members, where consumers can discuss product experiences, ask questions, and get answers from other members or retail product experts.[82]\nThe building exteriors of Best Buy-branded stores are typically light brown, with the entrance designed to look like a blue box emerging from the structure.[83] Corporate employees operated under a results only work environment from 2005 until March 2013, when the management style was abandoned by Best Buy CEO Hubert Joly.[84][85]\nAs of October 29, 2016, Best Buy operated 1,026 Best Buy, 331 Best Buy Mobile stand-alone stores, and 28 stand-alone Pacific Sales stores in the US.[2] Best Buy also operated: 135 Best Buy and 53 Best Buy Mobile stand-alone stores in Canada; and 18 Best Buy stores and 5 Best Buy Express stores in Mexico.[2] Best Buy exited the European market in April 2013, selling its stake in the business back to its partner Carphone Warehouse.[71][72]\nHouse brands[edit]\nBest Buy also produces products under eight house brands:[2]\nControversies[edit]\nWarranty[edit]\n The company, in announcing the result, said it was focusing more on digital media in its marketing, moving away from newspaper, magazine, and television advertising.[73]\nOn March 28, 2015, Best Buy announced the shutdown of the Future Shop chain in Canada; 65 of its 131 former locations were converted into Best Buy locations, while the rest (primarily those in close proximity to an existing Best Buy) were closed permanently.[74]\nOn March 1, 2018, the company announced that it would shut down its 250 standalone Best Buy Mobile stores in the United States by the end of May, due to low revenue and high costs. In August 2022, Best Buy said it would be laying off employees across the country after warnings of weaker sales, and the company cut its forecast for the remainder of 2022.[79]\nOn October 13, 2023, Best Buy announced that it would phase out the sale of physical home media in early 2024, citing changes in the market due to the prevalence of streaming video on demand services.[80][81]\nCorporate affairs[edit]\nBusiness operations[edit]\nBest Buy sells consumer electronics and a variety of related merchandise, including software, video games, music, mobile phones, digital cameras, car stereos, and video cameras, in addition to home appliances (washing machines, dryers, and refrigerators), in a noncommissioned sales environment.[2] The Best Buy Mobile stores were reported to account for 1% of the company\'s revenue.[75]\nOn May 9, 2018, the company unveiled a new logo for the first time in nearly three decades.[76]\nOn July 2, 2018, Best Buy announced it was cutting the amount of store space devoted to selling physical music, citing the popularity of streaming services as having reduced sales.[77]\nOn April 15, 2019, Best Buy announced that in June 2019, its current CFO, Corie Barry, would replace Hubert Joly[5] who held the position of CEO since August 2012. The customer was indicted for possession of child pornography, although the judge in the case later threw out nearly all the evidence against the defendant due to "false and misleading statements" made by an FBI agent while trying to secure a search warrant for the customer\'s house, and the government ultimately dropped the case.[97]\nPrivacy[edit]\nOn October 20, 2023, CBC News released the results of a Marketplace investigation which found that that Best Buy technicians had viewed private files, such as intimate photos, on customer devices.'}, {'url': 'https://www.company-histories.com/Best-Buy-Co-Inc-Company-History.html', 'content': 'As the Best Buy chain pushed past the 500-store mark in 2003 with the opening of 67 new stores in the United States, including the first stores in Alaska, Idaho, Utah, and West Virginia, the situation at the Musicland chains was deteriorating. Returning to the Core: 2003 and Beyond\nDespite the completion of this acquisition, Best Buy pushed ahead with a previously planned expansion of the Best Buy chain into Canada, opening eight stores in the Toronto area in the fall of 2002. Significant changes were made to the product mix, particularly by eliminating slower selling product lines and models; a greater emphasis was placed on selling service plans to customers; and "high touch" areas were added to the stores to help sell the burgeoning array of digital consumer products, such as cameras, cellular phones, satellite systems, and the fast-selling DVD player (first introduced in 1996) for which customers often needed more assistance. This rapid growth in digital product sales also inspired a shift in the overall product mix: sales of consumer electronics products (33 percent of the total) surpassed the sales of home office products (31 percent) for the first time (in 1999 these figures were 27 percent and 36 percent, respectively). Magnolia was founded in 1954 by Len Tweten, who built the firm into one of the most respected audio-video retailers in the nation based on the high quality of its merchandise, its dedication to exceptional customer service, and its renowned in-house repair/installation department.'}]
I have found that Best Buy was founded as Sound of Music. Now, I will search for the year it went public and its stock price in 2000 and 2010.
{'tool_name': 'internet_search', 'parameters': {'query': 'Best Buy went public'}}
[{'url': 'https://www.zippia.com/best-buy-careers-1455/history/', 'content': 'Meantime, Best Buy was taken public in 1985, raising $8 million through an IPO, and two years later gained a listing on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). ... Best Buy may also be known as or be related to Best Buy, Best Buy Co Inc, Best Buy Co., Inc., Sound of Music (1966-1983) Best Buy Co. Superstores (1983-1984) Best Buy Superstores ...'}, {'url': 'https://atouchofbusiness.com/companies/best-buy/', 'content': 'Public Listing and IPO: Best Buy went public in 1985 and listed on the NYSE in 1987. Conceptual Changes: The late 1980s and 1990s brought new store formats and growth, with revenues surpassing $1 billion. Overcoming Market Challenges. Supplier Relations: Mid-1990s challenges led to a merchandising revamp.'}, {'url': 'https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences-and-law/economics-business-and-labor/businesses-and-occupations/best-buy-co-inc', 'content': 'Best Buy grew rapidly with $28.5 million in sales in 1984—compared to $9.9 million in 1983. In 1985, with 9 stores, Best Buy became a public company. By 1987, Best Buy had 24 stores and sales of $240 million, but it was beginning to feel the crunch as other rapidly expanding consumer electronics retailers pushed their way into the market.'}, {'url': 'https://www.company-histories.com/Best-Buy-Co-Inc-Company-History.html', 'content': 'As the Best Buy chain pushed past the 500-store mark in 2003 with the opening of 67 new stores in the United States, including the first stores in Alaska, Idaho, Utah, and West Virginia, the situation at the Musicland chains was deteriorating. Returning to the Core: 2003 and Beyond\nDespite the completion of this acquisition, Best Buy pushed ahead with a previously planned expansion of the Best Buy chain into Canada, opening eight stores in the Toronto area in the fall of 2002. Significant changes were made to the product mix, particularly by eliminating slower selling product lines and models; a greater emphasis was placed on selling service plans to customers; and "high touch" areas were added to the stores to help sell the burgeoning array of digital consumer products, such as cameras, cellular phones, satellite systems, and the fast-selling DVD player (first introduced in 1996) for which customers often needed more assistance. This rapid growth in digital product sales also inspired a shift in the overall product mix: sales of consumer electronics products (33 percent of the total) surpassed the sales of home office products (31 percent) for the first time (in 1999 these figures were 27 percent and 36 percent, respectively). Magnolia was founded in 1954 by Len Tweten, who built the firm into one of the most respected audio-video retailers in the nation based on the high quality of its merchandise, its dedication to exceptional customer service, and its renowned in-house repair/installation department.'}, {'url': 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Best_Buy', 'content': 'Under the Geek Squad brand, Best Buy offers computer repair, warranty service, and accidental service plans.[2] Best Buy provides an online community forum for members, where consumers can discuss product experiences, ask questions, and get answers from other members or retail product experts.[82]\nThe building exteriors of Best Buy-branded stores are typically light brown, with the entrance designed to look like a blue box emerging from the structure.[83] Corporate employees operated under a results only work environment from 2005 until March 2013, when the management style was abandoned by Best Buy CEO Hubert Joly.[84][85]\nAs of October 29, 2016, Best Buy operated 1,026 Best Buy, 331 Best Buy Mobile stand-alone stores, and 28 stand-alone Pacific Sales stores in the US.[2] Best Buy also operated: 135 Best Buy and 53 Best Buy Mobile stand-alone stores in Canada; and 18 Best Buy stores and 5 Best Buy Express stores in Mexico.[2] Best Buy exited the European market in April 2013, selling its stake in the business back to its partner Carphone Warehouse.[71][72]\nHouse brands[edit]\nBest Buy also produces products under eight house brands:[2]\nControversies[edit]\nWarranty[edit]\n The company, in announcing the result, said it was focusing more on digital media in its marketing, moving away from newspaper, magazine, and television advertising.[73]\nOn March 28, 2015, Best Buy announced the shutdown of the Future Shop chain in Canada; 65 of its 131 former locations were converted into Best Buy locations, while the rest (primarily those in close proximity to an existing Best Buy) were closed permanently.[74]\nOn March 1, 2018, the company announced that it would shut down its 250 standalone Best Buy Mobile stores in the United States by the end of May, due to low revenue and high costs. In August 2022, Best Buy said it would be laying off employees across the country after warnings of weaker sales, and the company cut its forecast for the remainder of 2022.[79]\nOn October 13, 2023, Best Buy announced that it would phase out the sale of physical home media in early 2024, citing changes in the market due to the prevalence of streaming video on demand services.[80][81]\nCorporate affairs[edit]\nBusiness operations[edit]\nBest Buy sells consumer electronics and a variety of related merchandise, including software, video games, music, mobile phones, digital cameras, car stereos, and video cameras, in addition to home appliances (washing machines, dryers, and refrigerators), in a noncommissioned sales environment.[2] The Best Buy Mobile stores were reported to account for 1% of the company\'s revenue.[75]\nOn May 9, 2018, the company unveiled a new logo for the first time in nearly three decades.[76]\nOn July 2, 2018, Best Buy announced it was cutting the amount of store space devoted to selling physical music, citing the popularity of streaming services as having reduced sales.[77]\nOn April 15, 2019, Best Buy announced that in June 2019, its current CFO, Corie Barry, would replace Hubert Joly[5] who held the position of CEO since August 2012. The customer was indicted for possession of child pornography, although the judge in the case later threw out nearly all the evidence against the defendant due to "false and misleading statements" made by an FBI agent while trying to secure a search warrant for the customer\'s house, and the government ultimately dropped the case.[97]\nPrivacy[edit]\nOn October 20, 2023, CBC News released the results of a Marketplace investigation which found that that Best Buy technicians had viewed private files, such as intimate photos, on customer devices.'}]
{'tool_name': 'internet_search', 'parameters': {'query': 'Best Buy stock price in 2000 and 2010'}}
[{'url': 'https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/BBY/history/', 'content': 'Discover historical prices for BBY stock on Yahoo Finance. View daily, weekly or monthly format back to when Best Buy Co., Inc. stock was issued.'}, {'url': 'https://www.macrotrends.net/stocks/charts/BBY/best-buy/stock-price-history', 'content': 'Best Buy - 39 Year Stock Price History | BBY. Prices ... 2010, 25.1877, 25.7674, 31.2441, 20.2713, 22.3228 ... 2000, 16.0083, 15.2882, 22.8658, 5.9318, 7.8595, -\xa0...'}, {'url': 'https://investors.bestbuy.com/investor-relations/stock-info/quote-and-chart/', 'content': 'Price 79.30. Change -0.88. Volume 666,622.'}, {'url': 'https://companiesmarketcap.com/best-buy/stock-price-history/', 'content': 'Stock price history for Best Buy (BBY). Highest end of day price: $138.00 USD on 2021-11-22. Lowest end of day price: $0.14 USD on 1985-05-02\xa0...'}, {'url': 'https://www.netcials.com/stock-price-chart-history-nyse/BBY-Best-Buy-Co-Inc/', 'content': '1 Best Buy Co Inc (BBY) 20 Years Stock Chart History ; 2000, 16.24 (17.6%), 23.199 (29.07%) ; 2001, 14.80 (-8.87%), 20.1319 (-13.22%) ; 2002, 14.59 (-1.42%)\xa0...'}]Relevant Documents: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,11,13,14
Cited Documents: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,11,14
Answer: Best Buy, which was founded as Sound of Music, went public in 1985. Its stock price in 2000 was between $5.93 and $16.24 and in 2010, it was between $20.27 and $31.24.
Grounded answer: <co: 0,1,2,3,4>Best Buy</co: 0,1,2,3,4>, which was founded as Sound of Music, went public in <co: 2,5,6,7>1985</co: 2,5,6,7>. Its stock price in <co: 11,14>2000</co: 11,14> was between <co: 11>$5.93</co: 11> and <co: 14>$16.24</co: 14> and in <co: 11>2010</co: 11>, it was between <co: 11>$20.27</co: 11> and <co: 11>$31.24</co: 11>.

> Finished chain.





'Best Buy, which was founded as Sound of Music, went public in 1985. Its stock price in 2000 was between $5.93 and $16.24 and in 2010, it was between $20.27 and $31.24.'

Have a multi-turn conversation with the ReAct agent

The chat history enables you to have multi-turn conversations with the ReAct agent.

from langchain_core.messages import HumanMessage, AIMessage

chat_history = [
    HumanMessage(content="I'm considering switching to Oracle for my CRM."),
    AIMessage(content="That sounds like a good idea! How can I help you?"),
    HumanMessage(content="Recap me all the info you can find about their offering."),
]

prompt = ChatPromptTemplate.from_messages(chat_history)
agent = create_cohere_react_agent(
    llm=llm,
    tools=[internet_search, vectorstore_search, python_tool],
    prompt=prompt,
)

agent_executor = AgentExecutor(agent=agent, tools=[internet_search, vectorstore_search, python_tool], verbose=True)
response = agent_executor.invoke({
    "preamble": preamble,
})

response['output']
> Entering new AgentExecutor chain...

I will search for 'Oracle CRM offering' and relay the information I find to the user.
{'tool_name': 'internet_search', 'parameters': {'query': 'Oracle CRM offering'}}
[{'url': 'https://docs.oracle.com/en/applications/siebel/', 'content': 'Siebel CRM delivers a combination of transactional, analytical, and engagement features to manage all customer-facing operations. With solutions tailored to more than 20 industries, Siebel CRM delivers comprehensive on-premise CRM solutions that are tailored industry solutions with role-based customer intelligence and pre-built integration.'}, {'url': 'https://www.softwareadvice.com/resources/breaking-down-oracle-crm/', 'content': "Oracle's Marketing Cloud provides a comprehensive set of tools that cover a range of digital marketing needs. This includes tools for cross-channel marketing, i.e., marketing automation for both B2B and B2C marketers, as well as data management, content marketing and social media marketing. Cross-Channel Marketing."}, {'url': 'https://www.trustradius.com/products/oracle-crm-on-demand/reviews?qs=pros-and-cons', 'content': "What is Oracle CRM On Demand?The basis of this offering is the Market2Lead product that Oracle acquired in 2010. It has now been fully integrated with Oracle's On Demand CRM product and is a full-featured marketing automation product with features from lead management and nurturing, to measuring marketing ROI."}, {'url': 'https://www.oracle.com/cx/siebel/', 'content': 'In addition to standard CRM functionality, this industry solution includes asset, premises, and contracts management; work orders; oil well management and oil field service; B2C and B2B web portals; and credit and fraud management capabilities.\nDesigned for pharmaceutical sales, Siebel CRM Life Sciences provides personalized content delivery tools to help sales and marketing teams deliver the right messages during each customer interaction.\n Marketing, sales, and customer service applications are fully integrated and designed to manage the complex interactions and relationships between brand owners, their partners (including brokers and distributors), their customers, and the end consumer.\n It leverages data and AI to transform CX–launching offers, acquiring and retaining customers, omnichannel ecommerce and customer care, and fulfilling and monetizing services.\n It leverages data and AI to transform CX–launching offers, acquiring and retaining customers, omnichannel ecommerce and customer care, and fulfilling and monetizing services.\n Provide world-class citizen services while delivering comprehensive, cost-efficient case management and policy management, including social services, justice and public safety, constituent services/311, self-service citizen portals, tax and revenue, and licensing and permitting.\n'}, {'url': 'https://www.suretysystems.com/insights/oracle-customer-relationship-management-a-complete-overview/', 'content': 'Effective CRM systems offer the following features for enterprise users: Simple, easy-to-use interface; ... Oracle CRM simplifies customer relationship management by enhancing customer interactions and improving customer satisfaction and sales growth. Oracle Client Experience (CX), a connected suite of tools that transcends standard CRM ...'}]Relevant Documents: 0,1,2,3,4
Cited Documents: 0,1,2,3,4
Answer: Oracle's CRM offering includes the following:
- Marketing Cloud, which provides a comprehensive set of tools that cover a range of digital marketing needs, including cross-channel marketing, marketing automation, data management, content marketing and social media marketing
- CRM On Demand, which is a full-featured marketing automation product with features from lead management and nurturing, to measuring marketing ROI
- Siebel CRM, which delivers a combination of transactional, analytical, and engagement features to manage all customer-facing operations, with solutions tailored to more than 20 industries
- Siebel CRM Life Sciences, which provides personalised content delivery tools to help sales and marketing teams deliver the right messages during each customer interaction
- Oracle Client Experience (CX), a connected suite of tools that transcends standard CRM
Grounded answer: Oracle's CRM offering includes the following:
- <co: 1>Marketing Cloud</co: 1>, which provides a <co: 1>comprehensive set of tools</co: 1> that cover a <co: 1>range of digital marketing needs</co: 1>, including <co: 1>cross-channel marketing</co: 1>, <co: 1>marketing automation</co: 1>, <co: 1>data management</co: 1>, <co: 1>content marketing</co: 1> and <co: 1>social media marketing</co: 1>
- <co: 2>CRM On Demand</co: 2>, which is a <co: 2>full-featured marketing automation product</co: 2> with features from <co: 2>lead management and nurturing</co: 2>, to <co: 2>measuring marketing ROI</co: 2>
- <co: 0,3>Siebel CRM</co: 0,3>, which delivers a <co: 0>combination of transactional, analytical, and engagement features</co: 0> to <co: 0>manage all customer-facing operations</co: 0>, with <co: 0>solutions tailored to more than 20 industries</co: 0>
- <co: 3>Siebel CRM Life Sciences</co: 3>, which provides <co: 3>personalised content delivery tools</co: 3> to help <co: 3>sales and marketing teams deliver the right messages during each customer interaction</co: 3>
- <co: 4>Oracle Client Experience (CX</co: 4>), a <co: 4>connected suite of tools</co: 4> that <co: 4>transcends standard CRM</co: 4>

> Finished chain.





"Oracle's CRM offering includes the following:\n- Marketing Cloud, which provides a comprehensive set of tools that cover a range of digital marketing needs, including cross-channel marketing, marketing automation, data management, content marketing and social media marketing\n- CRM On Demand, which is a full-featured marketing automation product with features from lead management and nurturing, to measuring marketing ROI\n- Siebel CRM, which delivers a combination of transactional, analytical, and engagement features to manage all customer-facing operations, with solutions tailored to more than 20 industries\n- Siebel CRM Life Sciences, which provides personalised content delivery tools to help sales and marketing teams deliver the right messages during each customer interaction\n- Oracle Client Experience (CX), a connected suite of tools that transcends standard CRM"